What is Photosynthesis? (with pictures) - wiseGEEK
The energy conversion efficiency for this type of photosynthesis is more fully described in Chapter 5.
LabBench Activity Dissolved Oxygen and Aquatic Primary Productivity
Since visible light accounts for about 45% of all solar energy, the maximum achievable energy efficiency for CO2 fixation using solar radiation is approximately 13%.
Bacterial photosynthesis is thought to be a relatively old form of photosynthesis.
The standard method for determining light requirements for corals' zooxanthellae has been examination of absorption characteristics of photopigments such as chlorophyll , chlorophyll etc. (good) or action spectrums (better). Both are not without problems. Absorption characteristics are usually based on pigments extracted in solvents. Spectral characteristics shift slightly according to the extraction solvent used, and photopigments, when combined, also change these characteristics slightly. A better way is to examine the action spectrum of zooxanthellae isolated from a stony coral. This is usually done with a monochromator, where a beam of pure color (hue) illuminates a culture of dinoflagellates and a reaction is determined (such as oxygen evolution). A chart of wavelengths versus reaction is then made. See Figure 1. This method also suffers from deficiencies - the two Photosystems (I and II) absorb light wavelengths with difference efficiencies, hence a monochromator might stimulate one photosystem, but not the other, and photosynthesis might not proceed efficiently (although 'spill-over' - also called State Transitions 1 or 2 - could perhaps overcome this problem - something very much in the discovery phase for zooxanthellae.) See Kirk (2000) for further details on action spectrums.
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2-1), the net reaction, following equations 2-1 through 2-4 is:
CO2 + 10 photons + H2O = CH2O + 1/2O2.(2-5)
Figure 2.1 - Schematic representation of mechanisms involved in plant photosynthesis Experimental data indicates that between 8 and 12 photons are required for fixation of one molecule of CO2.
2. You must have completed 45 semester units and GE Foundation requirements before the 9 units of upper-division coursework in a Pathway may be taken.
Photosynthetic Efficiencies of LEDs: Results of Short …
The number of photons required for ATP reproduction by photosynthetic bacteria has not been theoretically elucidated, though an experimental number of 1.5 has been determined (9).
Figure 25. Photosynthetic performance. From left, UV LED (peak at ~400nm), 420nm LED, white LED (4,000 K, peak at 443nm), blue/white LED combination (peaks at 453nm, and 457nm with phosphors), and red LEDs (631 and 657nm.) The difference between the lowest rate (blue/white combo) and highest rate (red LEDs) is ~39%.
Chapter 2 - Energy conversion by photosynthetic …
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21/05/2014 · Problems with Using Action Spectra for Determination of Photosynthesis Light Requirements
fertiliser requirements - Potash Development Association …
by Theresa Knapp Holtzclaw
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8
Effective strategies for teaching science vocabulary
1. Barber, James, 6:43-51 (2004)
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4. Govindjee and Orr, Larry, , Departments of Biochemistry and Plant Biology and Center of Biophysics & Computational Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL and Center for the Study of Early Events in Photosynthesis, Arizona State University respectively (2005)
5. Govindjee, J. T. Beatty, H. Gest, and J. F. Allen, eds., , Springer, Dordrecht (2005). pp. 119-129
6. Govindjee, J. T. Beatty, and H. Gest eds., special issue: , Photosynthesis Research 76:93-103
7. Crofts, Anthony, , Crofts Laboratory, University of Illinois
8. Haumann, Micahel, and Junge, Wolfgang, , Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1411:1-6 (1999)
9. Hillier, Warwick and Wydrzynski, Tom, Complex of Photosystem II Vary Independently during S-State Turnover, Biochemistry 200, 39:4399-4405 (2000)
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17. Des Marais, David J., , , NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA
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19. Cook, Steve, (and other biochem subjects) - an academic site for students.
20. Kondratieva, Elena N., Pfennig, Norbert, Truper, Hans G., , from The Prokaryotes, an Evolving Electronic Resource (1991-2006).
21. Whitmarsh, John and Govindjee, , Concepts in Photobiology (1997).
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This article will examine photosynthetic efficiencies of various LEDs. Specifically, six light sources were tested for photosynthetic responses by zooxanthellae found in the stony coral (most likely of Clade C15.) The light sources include a black light (mostly UV-A produced by a fluorescent lamp), and LEDs radiating energy at peaks of 400nm (UV-A/violet), a 418nm LED (producing mostly violet with a small amount of UV-A), a blue/white LED combination peaking at white light with a peak 443nm and 457nm, a 'white' LED with a blue peak at 443nm, and red LEDs producing maximal light at 631nm and 657nm. All tests were performed when light intensity was at sub-saturating levels. Evidence suggests absorption by carotenoids is responsible for lessened photosynthetic efficiencies at 450 nm and 470 nm.
Primary Productivity & Dissolved Oxygen Lab - …
(Mg) is an essential element in chlorophyll and hence for photosynthesis. Crop removal is The total requirement (to be supplied from manure and fertiliser) should be related to Mg level in the soil and additional Mg is only justified at soil Index 0 when should be applied every 3-4 years. If both potash and magnesium soil levels are below the optimum then apply the larger amount The picture illustrates typical magnesium deficiency symptoms of browning/reddening of the leaf tips and margins and pronounced yellow striping of the leaf veins.
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