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LabBench Activity Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis - Wikipedia

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Chemistry for Biologists: Photosynthesis

Another term is . I should point out that while the terms PAS & PUR have a lot in common, there is a difference in that PAS is most simply stated as the spectrum where "chlorophyll is much more efficient at using the red & blue spectrums of light to carry out photosynthesis. Therefore, the action spectrum graph would show spikes above the wavelengths representing the colors red & blue."
Reference: .

Plants use light energy to make sugars from carbon dioxide - Photosynthesis

Photosynthetic invertebrates (many corals, anemones, clams, nudibranch, etc.) also need more blue (400-490nm) than "higher" plants especially as tanks increase in depth, such as the 465-485 blue spectrum. Not only is blue/actinic lighting beneficial to photosynthetic invertebrates, it is also aesthetically pleasing to the eye and the 420 nm blue in particular brings out the colors of many corals/clams.
Osram Oslon now has a "patent pending" LED emitter (the NP Blue) that is the first 'blue' emitter SPECIFICALLY designed for the full PAR spectrum required by marine photosynthetic invertebrates (see for more)

What Is Photosynthesis? From Light Energy to Chemical …

When chlorophyll a absorbs light energy, an electron gains energy and is 'excited'

As we can see, there is a close relationship between the action spectrum and absorption spectrum of photosynthesis. There are many different types of photosynthetic pigments which will absorb light best at different wavelengths. However the most abundant photosynthetic pigment in plants is chlorophyll and therefore the rate of photosynthesis will be the greatest at wavelengths of light best absorbed by chlorophyll (400nm-525nm corresponding to violet-blue light). Very little light is absorbed by chlorophyll at wavelengths of light between 525nm and 625 (green-yellow light) so the rate of photosynthesis will be the least within this range. However, there are other pigments that are able to absorb green-yellow light such as carotene. Even though these are present in small amounts they allow a low rate of photosynthesis to occur at wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot absorb.

These contain chloroplasts, which are tiny objects containing chlorophyll.Here is the equation for photosynthesis:carbon dioxide + water (+ light energy)glucose + oxygen'Light energy' is shown in brackets because it is not a substance.

IB Biology Notes - 8.2 Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis Quiz - Science Geek

Photophosphorylation is the production of ATP using the energy of sunlight. Photophosphorylation is made possible as a result of chemiosmosis. Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across a selectively permeable membrane, down their concentration gradient. During photosynthesis, light is absorbed by chlorophyll molecules. Electrons within these molecules are then raised to a higher energy state. These electrons then travel through Photosystem II, a chain of electron carriers and Photosystem I. As the electrons travel through the chain of electron carriers, they release energy. This energy is used to pump hydrogen ions across the thylakoid membrane and into the space within the thylakoid. A concentration gradient of hydrogen ions forms within this space. These then move back across the thylakoid membrane, down their concentration gradient through ATP synthase. ATP synthase uses the energy released from the movement of hydrogen ions down their concentration gradient to synthesise ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

Temperature, carbon dioxide concentration and light intensity are factors that can limit the rate of photosynthesis.Plants also need mineral ions, including nitrate and magnesium, for healthy growth.

plants must make use of respiration when light is not available
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  • BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Photosynthesis

    by Theresa Knapp Holtzclaw

  • CHLOROPHYLL - Its Many Wonders and Benefits - …


  • Photosynthesis - perfect chemistry in Nature

    Stages of photosynthesis

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The Discovery of Photosynthesis

PAR is an important and accepted starting point to estimate light energy for our photosynthetic aquarium keeping needs. We measure PAR via µMolm which is a unit of measure (more about measurement later).

Aquarium Lighting Information Guide | Reef Planted | …

PAR is the abbreviation for Photosynthetically Active Radiation which is the spectral range of solar light from 400 to 700 nanometers that is generally accepted as needed by plants & symbiotic zooanthellic algae for photosynthesis (Zooxanthellae are single-celled algae that live in the tissues of animals such as corals, clams, & anemones).
It is also noteworthy that while outside of the accepted PAR, a study using infrared (IR) LEDs of 880 nm & 935 nm on etiolated oat seedlings showed leaf emergence, so these parameters may someday need better defining (See at the end of article).

Magnesium: The Lamp of Life - Chlorophyll, DNA, …


Lights as they apply to aquarium use have evolved/changed considerable since I have been in the hobby & professionally employed in aquarium set-up & design.
We often used "hardware store" warm white T12 fluorescent lights, just in larger "quantities" to make up for the poor "quality" of light, even while planted freshwater could be kept, not so with ANY photosynthetic reef life.
Early on lights such as the "Aquarilux" came out which still was heavier on the "warm" colors, it also had more blue.
Later the Trichromatics & Triton lamps came out with spectrums focusing on the daylight 6500 Kelvin temperature, these made growing planted aquariums easier with less lights to do the same job as earlier lights.
We also had actinic blue lights become available, these mixed with other lights made it possible in the beginning to keep some photosynthetic reef life, although initially these did not thrive. Later T6 & T5 advancements along with Metal Halide lights allowed us to not only keep delicate photosynthetic reef life, but for this life to thrive.
We now have T2, SHO, & LEDs of which the later have lowered considerably the input energy for the quantity of output energy of light that we need for our aquarium keeping applications.

Inside chlorophyll is the lamp of life and that lamp is magnesiumd

*Phototropic response; having a tendency to move in response to light. Basically this is the Chlorophyll containing plant or algae "moving" to respond to a positive light source to begin the process of photosynthesis (initial growth of plants, zooxanthellae, etc.).

The capture of light energy from the sun is magnesium dependent

*Photosynthetic response; During this time, the molecules needed for photosynthesis gradually reach operating levels which begins when energy from light is absorbed by proteins called photosynthetic reaction centers that contain chlorophylls.

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