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The cholesterol synthesis pathway, ..

Cholesterol: Synthesis, Metabolism, Regulation

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step in the cholesterol synthesis pathway

Low HDL-cholesterol is a component of the metabolic syndrome that is characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension

The process of cholesterol synthesis can be considered to be composed of ..

Incidence of coronary heart disease events in a normal population is inversely related to the serum HDL-cholesterol concentration - low levels carry an increased coronary risk

Statins inhibit endogenous cholesterol production by ..

an early rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis

Lipoprotein consists of esterified and unesterified cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and apolipoproteins. The proteins function as cofactors and ligands for receptors.

This effect may be mediated by reverse cholesterol transport, a process whereby excess cholesterol in cells and in atherosclerotic plaques is removed and transported back to the liver.

23/12/2016 · Statins as Cholesterol ..

-Meval onate Notes on statins •Cholesterol is synthesised ..

Figure 3. Chemical structures for reduction reaction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA, better known as HMG-CoA, into mevalonate as catalyzed by HMG-CoA reductase. HMG-CoA is the substrate for HMGR, a key enzyme that catalyzes this committed step in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Statins seek to suppress this pathway by out-competing HMG-CoA for binding in the active site of HMGR (adapted from reference 1).

The biosynthesis of cholesterol in the liver and intestinal cells is a process that creates the essential lipid from acetyl CoA subunits. Much interaction and regulation exists between this endogenous synthesis process and the absorption of dietary cholesterol in the small intestine. As less cholesterol is consumed, synthesis increases in order to meet the body’s demands for the nutrient, while an increase in consumption results in the downregulation of the endogenous process (2). Canonically, the synthesis pathway is divided into three distinct segments: the synthesis of activated isoprene subunits, the condensation of these isoprene molecules to form squalene, and squalene’s cyclization into cholesterol (3) The cholesterol synthesis pathway, as divided into the three main steps listed above, is shown below (Fig. 4).

a class of cholesterol lowering drugs
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  • Figure 6.351 Cholesterol synthesis pathway 1

    Cholesterol metabolism — University of Waterloo

  • The pathway of cholesterol synthesis is quite elaborate

    This quote sums it up rather well—cholesterol metabolism is a key element in ..

  • This pathway of cholesterol metabolism in the ..

    induced by reduced cholesterol intake

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Cholesterol Sulfate Deficiency and Coronary Heart …

Figure 4. Schematic showing the endogenous human cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. The diagram is divided into the three main steps of the process: The synthesis of the isopentenyl pyrophosphate subunit from acetyl CoA is shown in red; squalene formation from six isoprene molecules is shown in black, while the cyclization of squalene into cholesterol is shown in blue. For simplification, only the most relevant intermediates are included. A dotted box has been drawn around the step in which HMG-CoA is converted into mevalonate, as this is the most pertinent reaction to the drug described in this paper. This step is shown in more detail in Figure 3 (adapted from reference 3).

The straight dope on cholesterol – Part III

Exercise, weight loss (in overweight subjects), smoking cessation, and changes in diet (specifically substitution of monounsaturated for saturated fatty acids) all can raise HDL-cholesterol.

13/08/2017 · Cholesterol

Risk for myocardial infarction increases by about 25 percent for every 5 mg/dL decrement in serum HDL-cholesterol below median values for men and women.

Dr. Duane Graveline on Cholesterol and Coenzyme Q10 …

The synthesis of mevalonate from HMG-CoA, which occurs during the first segment of the pathway, is regarded as the “committed step” in cholesterol biosynthesis (Fig. 3). For this reason, much of the regulation that controls this process targets the enzyme responsible for this conversion; HMGR (3). HMGR is controlled through a variety of mechanisms to ensure that proper levels of cholesterol are maintained throughout the body. This array of methods includes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the enzyme complex in the endoplasmic reticulum, inactivation via phosphorylation, or prevention of the transcription and translation of the enzyme and its mRNA (4). The importance of this enzyme and the reaction it catalyzes to the entire process of cholesterol biosynthesis makes inhibition of HMGR a rational and effective target for drugs that seek to lower blood cholesterol. By blocking the committed step of cholesterol biosynthesis, statins reduce the amount of cholesterol synthesized in a similar manner as that employed endogenously.

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