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DNA Replication & Protein Synthesis - PBS

Teaching Protein Synthesis (Replication, Transcription, and Translation) is a challenge

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DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis Flashcards | Quizlet

Humans have roughly 22,000 genes.
The first step in decoding these genetic messages is to copy part of the nucleotide sequence from DNA into RNA, or ribonucleic acid.
These RNA molecules contain coded information for making proteins
like DNA,
consists of a long chain of nucleotides,
and is made up of the
same things as DNA
(a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base)

for one small difference:
the sugar group in RNA is ribose.
RNA also differs from DNA
in the fact that it is
single stranded, and has the base uracil instead of thymine
(therefore, in RNA
A bonds with U
RNA is like a
disposable copy
of a
segment of DNA
In many cases, an
RNA molecule is a working copy of a single gene.
The ability to
copy a single DNA sequence into RNA
makes it possible for a
single gene to produce hundreds or even thousands of RNA molecules
There are
three main types
of RNA:
1.) messenger RNA (mRNA)
2.) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
3.) transfer RNA (tRNA)
The job of
messenger RNA (mRNA)
is to
carry copies of instructions
for the
assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA
to the rest of the cell
The job of
transfer RNA (tRNA)
is to
transfer, or move, amino acids to ribosomes
protein synthesis
The job of
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
is to
make up the major part of ribosomes.

Processes of DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis ..

Similar signals
in DNA cause transcription to
when the new RNA molecule is
RNA Editing
Our DNA contains
sequences of nucleotides
that are
not involved in coding for proteins.
DNA sequences
code for proteins
are called
because they are
in the synthesis of proteins.
RNA molecules
both the
from the
However, the
introns are cut out of RNA
molecules while they are still in the
The remaining
are then
spliced back together
to form the
final strand of mRNA.
The Genetic Code

are made by
joining amino acids

long chains

Processes of DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis 2

Proteins are assembled on ribosomes,
and ribosomes are made of
several dozen proteins as well as rRNA.
RNA molecules
are produced by
copying part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA
into a
complementary sequence in RNA
This process is called
requires an
known as
RNA polymerase
, which is
very similar
to the DNA polymerase in
DNA replication.
RNA polymerase
binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands.

, if not most,
mutations are neutral
, meaning that they have
little or no effect
on the
expression of genes
or the
function of the proteins
for which they code for.
are also the
source of genetic variability

in a species,
and some of this variation may be
highly beneficial.
One beneficial mutation in particular produces
resistance to HIV
, the virus that causes AIDS.
As A Reminder:
DNA ---> DNA is called replication
DNA ---> mRNA is called Transcription
mRNA ---> proteins (with the help of tRNA and ribosomes) is called Translation
Gene Regulation
in multicellular organisms is usually due to
different patterns of gene expression
rather than to
differences of the genes themselves.
expressed gene
is a gene that is
transcribed into RNA.

3. DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis | Dna Replication | Rna

This model incorporates DNA, RNA, and proteins.

DNA may replicate itself
DNA may be transcribed to RNA
RNA may be translated into proteins
RNA and DNA are NOT made from protein
DNA is NOT made from RNA

Called the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology – DNA to RNA to protein

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