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Facial feedback hypothesis - How Emotions Are Made

Facial feedback hypothesis - Wikipedia

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The facial feedback hypothesis, ..

Attributed to William James and Carl Lange, this theory suggests that physiological change is primary, while the emotion that is triggered when our brain reacts to it is secondary.

The facial feedback hypothesis states that facial movement can influence ..

That our emotional states are the results of our facial expressions?
Charles Darwin suggested that physiological and physical changes caused be emotions had a
direct impact
on the
exact consequence
of that same emotion
"The free expression by outward signs of an emotion intensifies it."
What does that even mean
Led way to the "facial feedback hypothesis"
William James and Carl Lange Theory of Emotion
- Awareness of bodily changes activated by a stimulus "is the emotion"
Daryl Bem and James Laird Theory of Self-Perception
- People develop their attitudes by observing their own behavior and concluding what attitudes must have caused it
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Pretend that you are happy, and you will feel happy
Pretend that you are angry, and you will feel angry
Smile during a job interview!
FF Hypothesis :
Facial movement can influence emotional experience
Two Versions
Weak Version :
Feedback intensity is already present
People had a reduce in emotions when they were instructed to suppress their zygomatic and corrugator muscles while imagining scenes
Strong Version :
Facial Feedback by itself an create the whole emotion
Why do people make faces?
: Interpret, enforce, or imitate another's actions
: Better identify and help them understand the "mood"
: Interaction between limbic activation and facial feedback is unclear
: Inhibiting facial expressions can strengthen or weaken emotional experiences
Necessity Hypothesis:
Without facial feedback there can be no emotional experience
Proven false because a study where women with total facial paralysis, were still able to demonstrate emotional responses to evocative photos
Sufficiency Hypothesis:
Facial expressive muscle activity can produce emotional experience
Modulation Hypothesis:
Facial expression can modulate emotional experiences that have been elicited by some external stimulus
No clue
A Sneaky Study
In 1988, Strack, Martin, & Stepper held a study without their participants knowing they were making faces
Told they were taking part in a study to determine the difficulty for people without use of their hands or arms to perform tasks
Held a pen in their mouth in one of three ways
Lip Position:
Frown due to contraction of the orbicularis oris muscle
Teeth Position:
Cause the zygomaticus muscle to contract, resulting in a smile
Control Group:
Held pen in nondominant hand
Asked to fill out a questionnaire in that position, and rate difficulty (fake)
Last task, rate the funniness of a cartoon (real)
Teeth Condition rated higher than lips condition
Botox : Paralyze facial muscles
First study - Ten patients with depression given botox
2 months later, 9/10 no longer depressed
Smile more, brings about a better day !

of the effects of facial activity on emotions

Awareness and use of the facial feedback hypothesis allows us to turn a bad day into a good day (or at least one that is a bit better) day.

Since the modern business environment is built upon complex human networks where ‘face time’ and ‘connecting’ are essential to success and opportunity, the business woman’s ability to communicate with peers and superiors alike can be a boost to her career...

Generally, interpersonal communication is thought to occur face-to-face, but through technological advances over the years, the interaction can occur electronically via texts, phone calls, and social networks (Johnson and Averbeck, 2010)....

Facial Feedback and Event-Apprasial Emotion - Term …

Facial feedback theory: how Botox makes ..

Strack, Fritz, Leonard L. Martin, and Sabine Stepper. “Inhibiting and Facilitating Conditions of the Human Smile: A Nonobtrusive Test of the Facial Feedback Hypothesis.” Journal of personality and social psychology 54.5 (1988): 768-77. ProQuest. Web. 18 Apr. 2014.

In a study by David Havas, researchers tested whether or not facial expressions affect one’s emotional interpretation of written language. 40 participants were given Botox treatments to inhibit the movement of the forehead muscles that cause brow-furrowing involved in frowning. The participants then had to read different “happy” or “sad” emotions. Those with the inability to furrow their brows took longer to process the sad or angry sentences after Botox treatment than before. However, the Botox did not affect their ability to process the happy sentences at the same speed. The finding that facial expression can be linked to language comprehension was groundbreaking to the study of emotions.

Facial Feedback Hypothesis | Encyclopedia of Psychology
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  • According to the facial-feedback hypothesis, a

    27/12/2017 · Facial feedback hypothesis is a state in which our facial cues influence one’s emotions

  • Facial feedback hypothesis - Revolvy

    Facial feedback hypothesis

  • What is the facial feedback hypothesis? | eNotes

    The facial feedback hypothesis states that facial movement can influence emotional experience

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According to the facial-feedback hypothesis: we pay …

While that fact is on slippery ground, with sources unable to come to a consensus on the exact number of muscles that are activated when we smile and frown, in the facial feedback hypothesis, we definitely have reason to smile.

A Crisp Explanation of Facial Feedback Hypothesis …

When given an array of pictures with human faces, many people can distinguish the emotions that are associated with different facial expressions. However, there has been much debate in recent years over how we can distinguish these different emotions by one’s facial expression and whether these facial expressions necessarily link to emotion or if they simply appear to. Even more, recent research has exposed that there may be more discernible categories of emotions than originally conceived to be seen through facial expressions. Until recently, scientists believed that there are six basic categories of emotion, including happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, new research suggest that there are many more categories that encompass human emotion. This article will explore the connection between facial expression and true emotion and the variability in discernible emotions from facial expressions.

A Crisp Explanation of Facial Feedback Hypothesis ..

Paul Ekman and Carroll Izard pioneered the study of facial expressions in the late 1960s. Their work investigated the link between facial expressions and basic emotions. From their research, Ekman and Izard conceived that one can tell a person’s true emotions based on their facial expression. Others disagreed with these findings, including Fridlund, who contended that facial expressions have more to do with those who perceive the facial expressions rather than those who present them. Therefore, Fridlund disagreed that facial expression shows the feelings of the person, but instead catalyzes action based on the person viewing the facial expression. For example, when a person smiles, this initiates further social interaction with another because that other person conceives the interaction positively. However, the smile on this person’s face may not entail true happiness. Further, Fridlund found that facial expressions facilitated pivotal points in social interaction, such as during social greetings.

Facial feedback hypothesis; FMRI;

While the weak version of facial feedback hypothesis suggests that physiological changes can only suppress or excite an existing emotion, the strong version suggests that such changes can create an emotion on their own.

While Darwin took into consideration the entire body, modern-day research seems to stress on the face, i.e., facial muscular activity.

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