Protein synthesis is an anabolic reaction which requires ..
The KGB Agent answer: Protein Synthesis is an example of endergonic reaction
ATP structure, ATP hydrolysis to ADP, and reaction coupling.
CTP is synthesized from UTP via an amination reaction catalyzed by CTPsynthetase. Here, the hydrolysis of ATP drives the reaction and glutamineprovides its amide nitrogen (in animals) to the pyrimidine base at the C4position.
You have frequently heard ATP referred to as the "universal energycurrency" of the cell, and this is true for all organisms. Why ATP ended upbeing such a pivotal coenzyme, and not GTP, UTP, etc., is probably just a matterof chance. The free energy of biological oxidation reactions can be stored inthe bonds of ATP (chemical energy). It's relatively easy to hydrolyzepyrophosphate linkages in ATP, with the result that a considerable amount offree energy is released (Go' = -30.5kJ/mol for ATP hydrolysis to ADP and Pi ).If this were released intothe cell as heat, it would serve no useful purpose as far as making anendergonic chemical reaction proceed, since there's no way for the cell totransduce heat energy into work. But, if two reactions are "coupled"such that the product of an endergonic reaction is the reactant of an exergonicone (and the magnitude of the free energy change of the exergonic one is greaterthan that of the endergonic) then the exergonic reaction pulls the endergonicone through an intermediate. In other words, for chemical energy to be socoupled, there must be an intermediate common to both reactions in the set.
An exergonic reaction is a chemical ..
(1) Two ATP molecules are needed for each UMP molecule produced, and theseare both used in the first step, in which carbamoylphosphate is produced from glutamine, bicarbonate and a phosphate from one ofthe ATPs. The other ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and Pi , providing freeenergy to drive the reaction. The enzyme, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II, isfound in the cytosol; carbamoyl phosphate is also produced in the urea cycle,but the enzyme involved there is the intramitochondrial carbamoyl phosphatesynthetase I.
Note that GTP hydrolysis drives the first step and that the lyase in thesecond step is the same lyase that we saw in reaction 9 in the IMP synthesispathway.
example of exergonic reactions? | Yahoo Answers
Such a chemical reaction is said to be exergonic, which means 'energy out'. Once the wood is alight, the reaction proceeds in this way until all the fuel is used up, all the available energy has gone and the entropy is at its maximum. These are 'natural' or spontaneous reactions that obey the second law of thermodynamics in every respect.
These two types of chemical reactions, exergonic and endergonic, are often linked in the way described. An exergonic reaction (burning wood) produces energy (heat) which is taken up and used to make an endergonic reaction (cooking the egg) take place. Energy is transferred from one type of reaction to another.
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Is protein synthesis exergonic or endergonic
Structural Biochemistry/Endergonic reaction
Photosynthesis is endergonic; the light and electrons from water provide the energy to make the reaction spontaneous.
are muscle contractions and protein synthesis
Math, Chemistry, Physics
obtained by coupling the reaction with an exergonic reaction.
The 5-Phosphoribosyl--pyrophosphate (PRPP) formedin the first step is also a precursor of pyrimidine synthesis, and it is also aprecursor of the synthesis of Trp and His. Because it is part of so manyimportant pathways, it is highly regulated. The role of ATP in this step isdifferent from that of the other steps in this pathway in which it is found. ATPactivates the ribose-5-phosphate by adding a pyrophosphate group (PPi)to C1 of the sugar (i.e., there is a group transfer). All of the otherATP-involving steps that follow harness the energy of hydrolysis of a phosphatebond of ATP (exergonic) to drive an endergonic reaction. In these steps, one cantalk about "coupling" of two reactions, such that the exergonic onedrives the endergonic one with the result that the overall G'is negative.
(exergonic) is used for protein synthesis ..
When ATP appears as a reactant, it can generally participate in two ways:part of the ATP molecule can be transferred to an acceptor molecule or ATPhydrolysis can drive an otherwise unfavorable reaction. The Pi, PPi,adenyl or adenosinyl groups can be transferred, as in the first step in thepurine biosynthetic pathway. In such instances, the substrate is said to be"activated" by the transfer. When the free energy of ATP hydrolysisdrives an endergonic reaction, the overall mechanism must involve transfer of aPi group somewhere along the way, even though, in the final analysis,it will appear as Pi in the reaction ATP + H20 -->ADP + Pi. Otherwise, there would be no way to couple thereactions.
Endergonic reaction - Wikipedia
(4) The attachment of the pyrimidine base to the ribose phosphate ring iscatalyzed by orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) and PRPP provides theribose-5-phosphate moeity. Hydrolysis of the PPi that is split off ofthe PRPP makes this reaction irreversible.
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