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the use of humour or denial (Folkman & Lazarus, 1980).

Emotional contagion includes the spreading of all forms of emotion from one individual to another (e.g.

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The role of intergroup emotions on political violence.

A critical first step in the supervisory process is establishing the supervisory alliance. A cardinal rule of supervision is to balance the power differential of the supervisor with the evaluative function; this is implicit in the supervisory role with the development of the supervisory alliance in which both develop shared goals, tasks to achieve these, and an emotional bond (Bordin, 1989). The clearer the expectations are for the supervisory relationship, the better. To establish the supervisory alliance, supervisor and supervisee must create a relationship of trust. Through the interaction that ensues, the supervisor and supervisee develop a set of goals that are relevant to the developmental level of the supervisee and are specific to the setting and context in which the supervision occurs. Once established, specific tasks to achieve these are formulated. The emotional bond is created and strengthened through this course of action in which supervisor and supervisee are focused on the specifics of the supervision process.

These theories focus on the basis of empathy in emotional contagion or imitation (e.g.

"The pleasant life is what hedonic theories of happiness are about. This life consists in successfully pursuing positive emotion about the present, past, and future, having as much as possible (and as little negative emotion) and learning the skills that amplify the intensity and duration of the positive emotions and diminish the negative emotions" (Jayawickreme, Pawelski, & Seligman, 2009, p. 4).

Emotional linkage can also teach offspring about their environment.

Our Ultimate Bases section details the importance of a direct emotional linkage across individuals.

Augusto–Landa, J. M., Pulido–Martos, M., & Lopez–Zafra, E. (2010). Does perceived emotional intelligence and optimism/pessimism predict psychological well–being? , (3), 463–474. doi:10.1007/s10902–010–9209–7. In this study we examined the associations between perceived emotional intelligence, dispositional optimism/pessimism and psychological well–being. In addition to correlational analyses, we examined a model by structural equation modeling (SEM). The study of psychological well–being in the field of positive psychology from the paradigmatic approach to happiness developed by Ryff and Singer (Psychother Psychosomat 65(1):14–23, 1998) is very important and essential, due in part to the lack of studies analyzing the predictors of Ryff's PWB model by contemplating emotional and cognitive factors. In this framework, our study examines the possible role of optimism and PEI as possible predictors of the psychological well–being dimensions proposed by Ryff, with a specific pattern of relationships as a model. Our results show positive relationships between clarity and emotional regulation and the psychological well–being components. With regard to dispositional optimism versus pessimism, positive relationships were found between optimism and psychological well–being dimensions and negative relationships between pessimism and dimensions of psychological well–being. Our model also includes some relationships, not initially raised, between the dimensions of perceived emotional intelligence and some dimensions of psychological well–being. Our results suggest relationships between emotional attention and purpose in life as well as with personal growth dimensions of psychological well–being. Implications and limitations are discussed.

Algoe, S. B., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2011). Emotional fitness and the movement of affective science from lab to field. , (1), 35–42. doi:10.1037/a0021720 Emotions provide a ubiquitous and consequential backdrop to daily life, influencing everything from physiology to interpersonal relationships in the blink of an eye. Instances of emotional experience accumulate and compound to impact overall mental and physical health. Under optimal conditions, emotions are adaptive for the successful navigation of daily life. However, situational features of military life likely amplify everyday emotions and their impact, creating the need for soldiers to have a well–oiled emotional resilience system in place from the start, to be maintained throughout their careers. Basic research in affective science has identified the active ingredients that would be required in order for such a system of skills and abilities to have maximum impact on overall emotional fitness. Results of this emotional resilience training may provide compounding benefits for the individual as well as have spreading impact for the benefit of the military unit and other social connections. The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness initiative highlights important new frontiers in affective science and presents a challenge to our field that requires taking a second look at the theory–testing process.

Cultural influences on the perception of emotion.

Culture and emotion: The integration of biological and cultural contributions.

Everything about the song is deeply unsettling and funereal, and by the time the song dissolves into a synth drone at the very end, it's clear that something is terribly wrong in Bowie's life. The keystone to the album, of course, is the side-closing "Lazarus," which starts with Bowie intoning "Look up here, I'm in heaven" over a bassline and an unsettling drum part that together immediately conjure up a sense of desolation and fear.

The skill shown by Bowie on this album in integrating his experimental side with this new-found emotional openness is somewhat terrifying, and the only album in his career that I can think of to come close to this one in regards to this integration is "Heroes" (that doesn't mean it's my first or second favorite Bowie album, but it does help explain why it's so high in my rankings). The first half, consisting of three tracks, is definitely one of the very best halves of any Bowie album.

Evidence for training the ability to read microexpressions of emotion.
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  • (2010). The role of emotion in predicting violence.

    Long history migration explains cultural differences in emotional expressivity and the social function of smiles.

  • Subjective experience and the communication of emotions in man.

    Social referencing studies have found negative emotions to affect the behavior of infants much more than positive.

  • The handbook of emotion elicitation and assessment (pp.

    The influence of emotion recognition and emotion regulation on intercultural adjustment.

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Cultural influences on the expression and perception of emotion.

Lambert, M. J., & Erekson, D. M. (2008). Positive psychology and the humanistic tradition. [Special issue]. , (2), 222–232. doi: 10.1037/1053–0479.18.2.222. Positive emotions are discussed within the context of experiential, client–centered, and related psychotherapies. An attempt is made to discuss the idea that the effects of such psychotherapies could be enhanced if positive emotions were viewed as a cause of positive psychotherapy outcomes rather than a consequence of focusing on painful and disturbing emotions. It is concluded that therapists within the humanistic tradition have highly positive views of persons and their tendency to be forward moving. Prizing patients while they express "negative" emotions seems much more likely to lead to positive emotions than the reverse. Thus, the positive psychology movement with its emphasis on giving preference to positive emotions seems misguided in a clinical context. Despite these reservations about the value of focusing on positive emotions in psychotherapy, the authors call for research to test the consequences of such a focus in experiential psychotherapy.

(1995) The development of emotional concepts in autism.

Kristjánsson, K. (2010). Positive psychology, happiness, and virtue: The troublesome conceptual issues. , (4), 296–310. doi:10.1037/a0020781. This article subjects the recently prominent theory of positive psychology to critical conceptual scrutiny, with emphasis on its general take on happiness, virtue, and positive emotion. It is argued that positive psychology suffers from internal divisions (such as divergent views of its proponents on what happiness is), ambiguities (e.g., regarding the possibility of nonvirtuous happiness), ambivalence (concerning self–realism vs. anti–self–realism), and at least one serious misconception (the assumption that any view that makes overall evaluative judgments thereby prescribes). Nevertheless, many of the charges commonly urged against positive psychology, in particular by Aristotelian theorists, do not stick, and we may be well advised to give it the benefit of our doubt.

(1959) Emotional reactions of rats to the pain of others.

Hicks, J. A., Trent, J., Davis, W. E., & King, L. A. (2011). Positive affect, meaning in life, and future time perspective: An application of socioemotional selectivity theory. . doi:10.1037/a0023965. Four studies tested the prediction that positive affect (PA) would relate more strongly to meaning in life (MIL) as a function of perceived time limitations. In Study 1 (N = 360), adults completed measures of PA and MIL. As predicted, PA related more strongly to MIL for older, compared to younger, participants. In Studies 2 and 3, adults (N = 514) indicated their current position in their life span, and rated their MIL. PA, whether naturally occurring (Study 2) or induced (Study 3), was a stronger predictor of MIL for individuals who perceived themselves as having a limited amount of time left to live. Finally, in Study 4 (N = 98) students completed a measure of PA, MIL, and future time perspective (FTP). Results showed that PA was more strongly linked to MIL for those who believed they had fewer opportunities left to pursue their goals. Overall, these findings suggest that the experience of PA becomes increasingly associated with the experience of MIL as the perception of future time becomes limited. The contribution of age related processes to judgments of well–being are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

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