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The three types of fossil fuels are coal, crude oil, and natural gas.

Natural gas, Coal, and oil are the world’s primary and most important source of energy.

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These resources are coal, oil and natural gas.

The rest of this chapter will trace many important preindustrial developments which helped set the stage for the Industrial Revolution, which is humanity’s fourth and most recent Epochal Event. But until the last few centuries in Europe preceding the Industrial Revolution, the basics among all civilizations did not appreciably change. Agriculture provided a local and stable energy supply that allowed for sedentism, forests were removed to make way for crops, and domestic animals were used to provide labor and/or flesh products, while their manure helped replenish soil nutrients depleted by agriculture. Virtually everywhere that agriculture appeared, so did civilization, with varying levels of urbanity. Elites dominated all civilizations, and they almost always invoked either a divine nature or divine sanction to justify their status, and they always engaged in conspicuous economic consumption. Cities situated on low-energy transportation lanes, which were almost always bodies of water, exploited forested and agricultural hinterlands, which were worked by peasants and slaves, while cities housed professionals and the elite. Forests and agriculture provided the primary energy supply of all preindustrial civilizations, which was usually supplemented with the products and services of domestic animals. All preindustrial civilizations were steeply hierarchical - economically, socially, and politically – and the means of production provided small surpluses that supported a small elite and professional class. Fighting over resources and plunder has been the primary predilection of all civilizations for all time, except for a very brief interlude at the beginnings of .

Also to determine the size of a reserve, as well as to produce oil and gas at a controlled rate.

Until the 20th century, people had no idea how their activities impacted a portion of their environment that may end up hastening humanity’s demise more than self-made deserts: the atmosphere. Agriculture and civilization meant deforestation, and there is compelling evidence that the Domestication Revolution began altering the composition of Earth’s atmosphere from its earliest days. The natural trend of carbon dioxide decline was reversed beginning about 6000 BCE. Instead of declining from about 260 PPM at 6000 BCE to about 240 PPM today, which would have been the natural trend, it began rising and reached 275 PPM by about 3000 BCE. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations were about 40 PPM higher than the natural trend would suggest. When a forest is razed and the resultant wood is burned, which is usually wood’s ultimate fate in civilizations, it liberated carbon that the tree absorbed from the atmosphere during . , and human activities began measurably adding methane to the atmosphere by about 3000 BCE, which coincided with the rise of the rice paddy system in China. In nature, methane is primarily produced by decaying vegetation in wetlands, both in the tropics and the Arctic, and human activities have increased wetlands even as they made other regions arid. Domestic grazing animals and human digestive systems also contribute to methane production. Atmospheric alteration by human activities has only come to public awareness in my lifetime, but human activities have had a measurable effect on greenhouse gases since the beginnings of civilization, even though the effects were modest compared to what has happened during the Industrial Revolution, as humans burn Earth’s hydrocarbon deposits with abandon.

Natural gas is the gaseous component of coal and oil formation.

Without oil and natural gas, Oklahoma would be a completely different state.

There were few dissenting voices in the USA to dropping the atom bombs on Japan, and when luminaries such as , the USA's government went to great lengths to justify the bombings. Also, the day after Hiroshima's bombing, American newspapers began rhapsodizing over the potential of nuclear energy, and although euphoria over nuclear energy's potential quickly faded, nuclear energy promotion was doggedly upbeat. Einstein dismissed nuclear energy as "one hell of a way to boil water," but by the 1950s, the nuclear establishment hired a death camp Nazi to among its many promotional activities. The propaganda is alive and well, as I never heard more pro-nuclear propaganda in my life as I heard in the wake of the , and .

The FE to manifest in the public arena and become used by all of humanity, and quickly. If FE does not manifest, of those visions are feasible, as FE will necessarily form their foundation, just as humanity’s energy practices have defined epoch of the human past. Abundant, harmless energy production has never been experienced on Earth before, other than in the GCs’ enclaves, and none of the so-called energy solutions proposed by various parties, from Peak Oilers to environmentalists, have any chance of being both clean and abundant. The “solutions” that they propose are all , which . So-called environmentalists nearly universally treat FE and abundance as the , and I initially could not believe what I was seeing. When I later traded notes with fellow travelers, I discovered that to be the , going back to the 1970s. After many years of looking for various groups to ally with, I had to reluctantly conclude that none exist. There is no group on Earth today, outside of the small FE cottage industry, which gives FE any credence at all, as those groups all do the GCs’ work for them, unwittingly or not. The greatest triumph of the GCs is making FE and a healed humanity and planet , and humanity has readily acquiesced to the conditioning as we .

How an Oil Spill Affects Photosynthesis | Home Guides | …

These costs are taken care of in electricity bills, in the price of gasoline for automobiles and other governmental and company funding....

We are projected to run out of oil by the year 2055 (When Will We Run Out Of Fossil Fuels?) and “fossil fuels are the primary source of about 375 billion tons of carbon that has been released into the atmosphere since the industrial era began in 1750” (Gerken).

Equipment and technology are being developed for natural gas use in the energy -demanding sectors of electricity generation, transportation, and residential and commercial cooling.

The United States, however, depends less today on oil for its fuel mix, and more on coal, natural gas, nuclear, and renewable technologies.
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  • Oil spills | Gravity Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

    The production facilities are more expensive to run and maintain than simply buying the oil or natural gas itself.

  • Oil Spill Experiment - Weird Science Kids

    We use gas to fuel our cars and depend on electricity produced from coal and oil to heat and cool our homes.

  • Environmental issues in the Niger Delta - Wikipedia

    There are also many negative impacts on our environment that have occurred from the oil and natural gas fields.

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Oil spills in the Niger Delta Extent of the problem

but the pollution will inflict an awesome price on Canada, as the tar sands region becomes a "national sacrifice zone." That low EROI reflects highly detrimental impacts. A huge proportion of Canada's natural gas supply will be needed for , and multi-billion-dollar pipelines and other infrastructure projects are proceeding (but delayed in 2015). Beleaguered Canadian Native American nations are overwhelmed by the industrial initiatives, which are . I heard from local friends in the summer of 2014 that the projected pipeline to the nearby waters of British Columbia will present great environmental risk, and the only question is not disastrous oil spills will happen, but , , and they will be. One of Earth's most diverse aquatic ecosystems will be put at risk (Puget Sound is in second place, next to the Great Barrier Reef).

Reports on the extent of the oil spills vary

In the end, is the most meaningful standard of living measure. Declining total available energy and declining EROI contribute to a declining energy surplus. Most people have some understanding of hunger, and if they have experienced blackouts, brownouts, or gas shortages, they have keenly felt the loss of energy. But the decline of industrial civilization has many other signs that comfortable Westerners can have difficulty grasping, and the following examples are intended to make it clearer.

How Mushrooms Can Save the World | …

The decline in real wages per hour and attendant rise in real prices for gasoline and homes is only a financial measure of the decline in energy resources and consumption. At the family budget level, as energy prices increase, all goods needing energy to produce such as gasoline, food, housing, medicine, and the like cost more. If they can even hold their marriages together (if they even get married anymore), both parents in American households work outside of their homes today, when only one did during the . As businesses try to remain competitive, wages are lower for those fortunate enough to keep their jobs, social goods such as education are prohibitively more expensive, and less money is available for anything beyond survival. For example, in the late 1970s and early 1980s I received a nearly free college education. In 2014, a college education comes with crippling debt as each student's "graduation present," unless the student has parents from the affluent class.

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