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ORGANIC SYNTHESIS TECHNIQUES: REFLUX.

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Organic Synthesis part 2 (techniques) Edexcel will be available on

Hetero cyclic compound is a ring structure that has at least two different elements as its members of ring. It is the branch of chemistry that deals with the synthesis properties and applications of heterocyclic compounds classified as heterocyclic probably constitute the largest and most varied family of organic compounds. After all, every carbocyclic compound, regardless of structure and functionality, may in principle be converted into a collection of heterocyclic analogs by replacing one or more of the ring carbon atoms with a different element.

Pyridine synthesis - Organic chemistry

After separation of the organic and the aqueous layer, the amine can be recovered by addition of a strong base like NaOH or KOH to the acidic extract i.e., lidocaine synthesis. Note that amides are usually not basic enough to undergo the same protonation (pKa of conjugate acid: ~ -0.5).




Most neutral compounds cannot be converted into salts without changing their chemical nature. Many of these neutral compounds tend to react in undesired ways i.e., esters undergo hydrolysis upon contact with strong bases or strong acids. One has to keep this in mind as well when other compounds are removed. For instance, epoxides hydrolyze to form diols catalyzed by acids and bases. Ketones and aldehydes undergo condensation reactions catalyzed by both, acids and bases. Esters also hydrolyze to form carboxylic acids (or their salts) and the corresponding alcohol. In order to separate these compounds from each other, chromatographic techniques are often used, where the compounds are separated based on their different polarities (see Chromatography chapter).




Based on the discussion above the following overall separation scheme can be outlined. Which sequence is the most efficient highly depends on the target molecule. There is obviously no reason to go through the entire procedure if the compound sought after can be isolated in the first step already. Note that many of these steps are interchangeable in simple separation problems.

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Natural product is a chemical compound produced by a living organism which is found in nature. Natural products can also synthesize by chemical synthesis and plays an important role in the development of the organic chemistry. In the case of organic chemistry natural products is usually restricted to purified organic compounds

Organic synthesis is the study of how we build molecules ranging from complex, biologically active natural products to new materials. Because synthesis allows a chemist to construct entirely new structures. It also involving the scientific study of the structure properties and reactions of organic compounds and material. The range of chemical studies in organic chemistry include hydrocarbons.

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