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Photosynthesis Intro. Example of a biochemical pathway

The light dependent reaction converts ADP and NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH and produces oxygen.

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Light Reaction AKA: Light Dependent Reaction

Cellular respiration is the process in which the cells of living things break down glucose with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. The overall chemical equation for cellular respiration is: C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 ! 6CO2 + 6H2 O + Heat and Chemical Energy Cellular respiration releases some of the energy in glucose as heat. It uses the rest of the energy to form many, even smaller molecules. The smaller molecules contain just the right amount of energy to power chemical reactions inside cells. You can look at cellular respiration in more detail at this URL: MEDIA Click image to the left or use the URL below. URL:

In this cycle the end products of the light-dependent reaction are used.

This diagram shows the biochemical reaction cycles. Since all energy source of the biological objects on the earth is the sun, the cycle starts from the sun. Sun gives light to plants. The plants produce Glucose or sugar and oxygen by the process called photosynthesis with carbon dioxide and water produced by other plants and animals. Specifically, the Chloroplasts in the plants produces the Glucose. The Glucose and the sugar and oxygen are consumed by other plants and animals by cellular respiration in mitochondria. By the cellular respiration, plants and animals produce ATP which is a source of energy. Comsuming the Glucose and oxygen, the plants and animals also produce water and carbon dioxide. The water and carbon dioxide provides the ingredient for photosynthesis of plants. With the water and carbon dioxide, the plants produces glucose and oxygen with sunlight which completes the cycle.

Calvin Cycle AKA: Light Independent Reaction or Dark Reaction

Photosynthesis and Carbon Capture

The light-independent Calvin Benison cycle reactions have three phases, which are carbon fixation, reduction reactions, and ribulose 1.5- biphosphate regeneration.

Higher plants, phytoplankton, algae, as well as some bacteria carry out the process of photosynthesis.

Steps of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis occurs in two main stages, the first stage being towards light reaction and the second stage being the Calvin Benson Cycle.

Source: At09kg. The scientific process of photosynthesis. . 2011.

PHOTOSYNTHESIS means "putting together with light."

Combusion of fossil fuels to generate energy for electricity, heating and cooling, industrial processes, and transportation accounts for over 80 percent of greenhouse gas emissions. ( is a chemical reaction wherein atmospheric oxygen reacts with carbon and hydrogen in fuel, creating carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy in the form of heat and light.

The diagram depicts the Oxygen Cycle. This is the cycle that maintains the levels of oxygen in the atmosphere. Oxygen from the atmosphere is used up in two processes, namely combustion, respiration and in the formation of oxides of nitrogen. Oxygen is returned to the atmosphere in only one major process, that is, photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide and water are taken up by plants in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll to give glucose and oxygen. This glucose and oxygen are converted into carbon dioxide and water during respiration. Respiration also gives energy for work in the form of ATP.

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 5.
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  • 1. What is photosynthesis? Why is the sun important?

    Calvin Benison CycleThe light independent reactions or the reactions of the of photosynthesis occur in the stroma.

  • Chapter 8 Section 2 - Photosynthesis

    These reactions do not require the presence of light and hence the name, light-independent reactions.

  • All organisms make food by photosynthesis.

    Rate of Photosynthesis

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Photosynthesis is an exothermic, or energy-releasing, process.

The diagram depicts the process of cellular respiration. There are three steps in this process. The first step is Glycolysis. In Glycolysis, glucose in the cytoplasm is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid and two molecules of ATP by direct synthesis. Then pyruvate from Glycolysis is actively pumped into mitochondria. One carbon dioxide molecule and one hydrogen molecule are removed from the pyruvate (called oxidative decarboxylation) to produce an acetyl group, which joins to an enzyme called CoA to form acetyl CoA. This is essential for the Krebs cycle.2 Acetyl CoA gives 2 NADH molecules and acetyl-CoA enters the Citric Acid Cycle, which is also known as Kreb's cycle. This happens inside the mitochondria. The citric acid cycle is an 8-step process involving different enzymes and co-enzymes. During the cycle, acetyl-CoA (2 carbons) + oxaloacetate (4 carbons) yields citrate (6 carbons), which is rearranged to a more reactive form called isocitrate (6 carbons). Isocitrate is modified to become -ketoglutarate (5 carbons), succinyl-CoA, succinate, fumarate, malate, and, finally, oxaloacetate. The total yield from 1 glucose molecule (2 pyruvate molecules) is 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, and 2 ATP. All the hydrogen molecules which have been removed in the steps before (Krebs cycle, Link reaction) are pumped inside the mitochondria using energy that electrons release. Eventually, the electrons powering the pumping of hydrogen into the mitochondria mix with some hydrogen and oxygen to form water and the hydrogen molecules stop being pumped. Eventually, the hydrogen flows back into the cytoplasm of the mitochondria through protein channels. As the hydrogen flows, ATP is made from ADP and phosphate ions. The Electron transport Chain gives about 34 ATP by ATP synthase. The maximum energy generated per glucose molecule is 38 ATP.

Which equation correctly represents photosynthesis?

Most of the energy used by living things comes either directly or indirectly from the sun. Sunlight provides the energy for photosynthesis. This is the process in which plants and certain other organisms (see Figure 9.26) synthesize glucose (C6 H12 O6 ). The process uses carbon dioxide and water and also produces oxygen. The overall chemical equation for photosynthesis is: 6CO2 + 6H2 O + Light Energy ! C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 Photosynthesis changes light energy to chemical energy. The chemical energy is stored in the bonds of glucose molecules. Glucose is used for energy by the cells of almost all living things. Plants make their own glucose. Other organisms get glucose by consuming plants (or organisms that consume plants). How do living things get energy from glucose? The answer is cellular respiration.

Only plants can carry out photosynthesis.

Today’s Objectives Given information and/or diagrams on the process of photosynthesis, write and/or identify the equation, raw materials, sites, products,

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