How to Synthesize a Cello Sound in Pure Data
Programming Sound with Pure Data torrent - …
Pure Data: An Introduction - Sound On Sound
This series is serving as the beta test method for the LWM Rack virtual modular synthesizer system, which is a series of Pure Data patches, utilized as abstractions to build modular synthesizers by placing modules and patching them together. This system, unlike the one in series 1, is a very open and expandable system. One does not have3 a specific set of modules that all function together in a unit for loading and saving sounds. In this case, LWM Rack is a modular system that is open-ended, kind of like a virtual Euro rack, which allows one to combine nad patch modules in a myriad of ways with the ability to save the whole patch as well as the parameters of the modules.
Table 22-2 shows the tradeoff between sound quality and data rate for thesethree categories. High fidelity music systems sample fast enough (44.1 kHz),and with enough precision (16 bits), that they can capture virtually all of thesounds that humans are capable of hearing. This magnificent sound qualitycomes at the price of a high data rate, 44.1 kHz × 16 bits = 706k bits/sec. Thisis pure brute force.
Readers use the Pure Data (Pd) language to construct sound ..
ADR – .
ADSR – , , , . These elements define the sounds (or ) generated by a keyboard instrument or synthesizer. See also .
ADT – or .
Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) – a method of and developed by , , , , and . It is designed to achieve better sound quality than MP3 at similar and file sizes. AAC has been made part of the and specifications. There are several types (profiles) of AAC encoding used for various applications, which are usually automatically selected by the encoder based on encoding options: AAC-LC (Low Complexity) profile, which is suitable for higher compression ratios, AAC-LD (Low Delay) profile which optimizes playback speed, used for real-time applications such as telephones, and (High Efficiency) profile, which has enhanced features.
Advanced Video Coding (AVC) – a standard based on motion-compensation used for the and distribution of video content, supporting up to 4096 × 2304, including . Also known as , or . See also (HEVC).
Advent Corporation – a consumer electronics company founded by Henry Kloss in 1967. It manufactured , , , and other electronic devices. In 1981, long after Kloss had left Advent, the company went into bankruptcy, and it was acquired by Jensen Electronics. In 2004, Jensen was acquired by Audiovox, which became in 2012.
Aeolian mode – one of the seven musical or with the interval pattern of tone-semitone-tone-tone-semitone-tone-tone. This is also known as the natural .
aerial – see .
aeroacoustics – the study of the generation and transmittance of sound by fluid flow or the study of aerodynamic forces interacting with surfaces.
aerophone – a classifications for musical in which a vibrating mass of air produces the initial sound according to the system of musical instrument classification. This classification includes , , and , as well as instruments that fall into none of these groups. The other four classifications are , , , and .
AES – .
AES3 – a professional audio standard for an developed jointly by the (AES) and the (EBU), formerly known as AES/EBU. The standard provides the technical details for transmitting via a . There are three types of connection in common use: (a) Type I - Balanced XLR, (b) Type II - Unbalanced RCA, and (c) Type III - Optical. Type I connections use , 3-conductor, 110-ohm cables with connectors, typically used in professional installations. They are considered the AES3 standard connector. Type II connections use , 2-conductor, 75-ohm with , typically used in consumer audio installations. They are known as connections. Type III use , commonly known as cables. Type III optical connections are used in both professional and consumer audio equipment. They are also known as connections.
AES3id – a subset of the (AES/EBU) standard with different hardware requirements. While AES3 specifies 110-ohm connections, AES3id specifies 75-ohm connections, the same as as connections, except AES3id usually uses connections rather than . The data contained in the transmission using both formats are identical.
AES3-MIC – a that conforms to the digital interface standard.
AES10 – a standard established by the (AES) that defines the (MADI). MADI can carry either 56 or 64 on a single or connection. The AES10 standard has features in common with the two-channel interface.
AES11 – a standard established by the (AES) for the of . AES11 recommends using a specific form of an signal to distribute audio within a facility, a connection referred to as a (DARS).
AES17 – a standard established by the (AES) that defines a method of evaluating the performance of and .
AES31 – a standard established by the (AES) for the interchange of audio projects between different systems, especially audio editing projects between . The standard is divided into three parts. Part 1 specifies the disk format. Part 2 defines the file format. Part 3 defines a standard for .
AES42 – an extension of the (AES/EBU) standard to and includes the ability to transmit and receive data along with the . The audio information is carried as AES3 data, while a modulated 10-volt supply conveys remote control and data. This data provides the ability to remotely control parameters, such as , , , , , and , as well as feedback about signal levels and the status of the mic.
AES47 – a standard established by the as a standardized method for packing professional audio streams over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks.
AES51 – a standard established by that specifies a method of carrying Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) cells over for use with to carry audio transport structure. The purpose of this is to provide an open standarid, Ethernet-based approach to the networking of linear () digital audio with extremely high quality-of-service along with standard Internet Protocol connections.
AES59 – a specification established by for 25-pin used for connections or for multi-channel (AES/EBU) connections. Currently there are primarily two D-Sub wiring methods: (a) TASCAM, used by , , , , and others, and (b) Yamaha, used by , , Mackie, , , and others. Since these two are not compatible, this standard (which uses the TASCAM pin out) was created to standardize D-Sub pinouts.
AES67 – a standard established by for (AoIP) and (AoE) interoperability. It specifies a baseline set of protocols to enable synchronized audio connectivity between AoIP and AoE using various using various audio systems, such as standards for , quality of service, and methods to bridge between different AoIP implementations.
AES70 – a standard established by for Open Control Architecture (OCA), a communications protocol, originally proposed by the OCA Alliance in January 2016, to control, monitor, and manage connections of media (networked and devices). It allows for the creation and deletion of signal paths, access control, control of processing, and firmware updates. Control can be via wired or . OCA is an open standard that requires no licenses, fees, or memberships.
AESC – American Engineering Standards Committee. See (ANSI).
AES/EBU interface – see .
AES II – refers to an Type II connector.
AES standards – standards established by the for use in the audio industry. Some of those standards are listed above. Others can be found on the page of their website.
aftertouch – a message for the amount of pressure applied to a when it is pressed down. See also .
AF – (1) Audio Frequencies. See . (2) Alternate Frequency. See
alto clef – the symbol on a music staff indicating that the third line from the bottom of a staff represents the pitch of middle C. It is one of five and is used primarily for writing music for the viola. Also called a .
AM – .
AM band – see .
ambience – (1) The sound that comes from the surrounding environment as opposed to coming directly from the sound source. (2) . See also . Not to be confused with , which means the atmosphere or mood of a particular environment.
ambience extraction – a method of removing information from a two-channel and using it to created . David Hafler developed one of the early systems of ambience extraction in the early 1960s, with a process he called Dynaquad, marketed by Hafler's company, . A few years later, Peter Scheiber patented a similar system that competed with in the early 1970s. cited several of Scheiber's patents when it developed the system. Also called , and .
ambience synthesis – a method of digitally synthesizing from information in a two-channel . Although similar in concept to , it uses digital technology and handles the data differently.
ambience track – the of the sets and locations in which a scene was shot recorded by the to be used in the final mix of a or production, used to make sure the background noise is consistent, without any unnatural changes.
ambient – (1) Pertainging to the surrounding environment. (2) A type of instrumental music designed to enhance the mood or atmosphere or induce calmness.
ambient audio – see .
ambient field – the area away from the sound source where the are greater than at the sound source. Also called .
ambient miking – placing a at a distance from the sound source to capture the or . Sometimes spelled . See also .
ambient microphone – a placed at a distance from the sound source to capture the or . This sound is often mixed with a mic close to the source (called a or ) to add , , or special effects or to improve . Sometimes called a , or for short.
ambient noise – see .
ambient sound – the that are present in a scene or , such as wind, water, crowds, and traffic. Ambient sounds are important in and work because they provide audio continuity between shots, they prevent unnatural silence when there is no other sound, and they can be used to establish a mood. Also called , or . See also .
ambient sound level – the due to at a given location, usually measured in dB relative to a reference pressure of 20 μPa (the ). The ambient sound level is measured with a , frequently using , in which case the measurements are specified in . Also called , or .
ambiophony – see .
Ambisonics – various recording and playback techniques, developed in the UK in the 1970s by the British , that use technology to create a variety of effects. The sound data can be and to produce a 2-dimensional (horizontal-only) or 3-dimensional (full-sphere) sound field. Unlike other surround sound formats, Ambisonics is not encoded into signals for specific , but contains representations of the sound field, called the B-format (see ), that includes source directions instead of speaker positions. This technique allows for the signal to be decoded specifically for the speaker setup at a given location or venue, allowing for a considerable amount of flexibility in the number of speakers and their position. Until recently Ambisonics has not been much of a commercial success, but with the advent of more powerful (as opposed to the used in the early years), interest in Ambisonics hs been increasing since the 1990s. See also .
AM broadcaster – a company or that its on the .
AM broadcasting – the of using .
American Association of Independent Music (A2IM) – a non-profit trade organization serving the independent music community by representing their interests in the marketplace, in the media, and in government affairs.
American Broadcasting Company (ABC) – a commercial US headquartered in New York City, NY, and owned by the Disney-ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. ABC originated in 1943 as a network when Edward J. Noble, owner of Life Savers candy and Rexall Drugs, purchased the Blue Network after the FCC ordered to divest its ownership. The following year, Noble acquired the rights to the name American Broadcasting Company and began using the name American Broadcasting Companies, Inc., for the parent corporation. ABC launched its television network in 1948. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. ABC merged with Capital Cities Communications in 1986. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company. In 2007, it sold the radio portion of the business to Citadel Broadcasting, becoming almost exclusively a television network.
American Federation of Musicians (AFM) – a union of performing artists and musicians. AFM membership guarantees that musicians will be paid at the minimum rate established by the union (union scale). Signatory companies (those having signed an agreement with AFM) can only hire union musicians and must pay union scale.
American Graphophone Company – a company founded in 1887 and licensed by the Volta Graphophone Company to manufacture the . The was founded in 1889 to sell the products manufactured by the American Graphophone Company. In 1895, the American Graphophone Company merged with the Columbia Phonograph Company, with the former conducting research and manufacturing and the latter managing marketing, sales, and distribution. The American Graphophone Company continued the manufacturer of Columbia products until 1916, when it was reorganized as the Columbia Graphophone Manufacturing Company.
American Loudspeaker Manufacturers Association (ALMA) – an international trade organization for companies that design, manufacture, sell, and test components and systems.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) – a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary standards for products, services, systems, processes, and personnel in the United States. It began as a joint effort to avoid creating conflicting standards when in 1918 six along with the the US departments of commerce, war, and the navy established the American Engineering Standards Committee (AESC). In 1928, it became the American Standards Association (ASA). In 1966, they reorganized and became the United States of America Standards Institute (USASI). The current name was adopted in 1969.
American standard pitch notation – see .
American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) – see .
American Wire Gauge (AWG) – a set of standards used for measuring and specifying non-ferrous wire conductor sizes (diameters), used primarily in the US and Canada. The higher the gauge number, the smaller the diameter. AWG is used only for non-ferrous wire used to conduct electricity, such as copper and aluminum. Steel wire uses a different gauge (the Washburn & Moen Gauge, which is also called the American Steel and Wire Gauge, or Steel Wire Gauge for short). AWG is also known as the Brown & Sharpe wire gauge. Household wiring typically is 12 or 14 gauge, whereas studio and audio wiring is usually in the range of 16 to 22. Some diameters for a sampling of AWG values is shown below:
Sound Quality vs. Data Rate - DSP
This is the first lesson in the Learning Synthesis with Pure Data Series 02, which focuses on LWM Rack, a synthesizer building system and collection of Pure Data patches for making synthesizers in PD. This lesson introduced the viewer to some of the basic modules and how the system works. In this lesson, we build a simple synthesizer using the VO, ADSR, MIDI In, Audio Output, and Mono Combiner modules. As the viewer will see, this system is very open and is flexible for building synthesizers. It is almost like a virtual Eurorack system for Pure Data.
acoustic lens – a mechanism used to improve the dispersion of in creating a more uniform dispersion across the . Developed by during World War II, the objective of the acoustic lens is to focus sound just as an optical lens focuses light.
acoustic load – the additional stiffness on a caused by the volume of air in the . For , this additional stiffness can be four times the stiffness of the . The increased internal air stiffness is caused by the walls of the enclosure imposing zero airspeed on the air within the enclosure.
acoustic ohm – a unit used to measure , analogous to the electrical .
acoustic panel – see .
acoustic percussion – a term used to distingush actual that are played by striking with a hand, stick, or beater, or by shaking, from or percussion instruments. Included in this group are .
acoustic phase interference – see .
acoustic piano – a term used to describe a regular that produces sound using the purely natural acoustics of felt-covered hammers hitting steel wire , as opposed to an , an , or a , which use to produce their sound.
acoustic power – see .
acoustic power level – see .
acoustic power output – see .
acoustic pressure – see .
acoustic pressure level – see .
acoustic quieting – the process of vibrations from equipment to reduce the level reaching a listener.
acoustic resistance – see .
acoustic reactance – see .
A piece of music composed with fast and slow granular synthesis.
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