saturated with radiation, causing the rate of photosynthesis …
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RADIATION ABSORPTION, PHOTOSYNTHESIS, AND PLANT GROWTH
Photosynthesis - definition of photosynthesis by The …
In our studies with wheat canopies, elevated CO2 increasedphotosynthesis, which increased tillering (branching) and lateral spread at theedges of the plant canopy. Precise measurements of the canopy-absorbing areashowed that of the CO2 effect was caused by increasedradiation absorption. The direct CO2 effect on photosynthesis wasonly about 50% of what we originally measured.
Differences in radiation quality from the six most common electric lamps havelittle effect on photosynthetic rate. Radiation quality primarily alters growthbecause of changes in branching or internode elongation, which change radiationabsorption. Growth and yield in wheat appear to be insensitive to radiationquality. Growth and yield in soybeans can be slightly increased under highpressure sodium lamps compared to metal halide lamps, in spite of greatlyreduced chlorophyll concentrations under HPS lamps. Daily integratedphotosynthetic photon flux (mol m-2 d-1) most directlydetermines leaf anatomy and growth. Photosynthetic photon flux levels of 800 -2 s-1 are adequate to simulate fielddaily-integrated PPF levels for both short and long day plants, but plantcanopies can benefit from much higher PPF levels.
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Although photosynthesis may not be affected by light quality in short-termstudies, the spectral quality from some lamps decreases chlorophyllconcentration and alters phytochrome status, which can be detrimental to plantgrowth in long-term studies. The monochromatic radiation from low-pressuresodium lamps can significantly reduce chlorophyll and plant growth in severaldicotyledonous species, for example.
Effect of spectral quality of wheat growth and yieldNot all species are sensitive to spectral quality, however. Low-pressuresodium lamps did not decrease the growth and yield of wheat compared to HPS andMH lamps (Table 3), a finding we recently confirmed. The plants under the lowpressure sodium lamps of course did not look green, but the apparent differencein green color disappeared when the plants were removed and placed together infull spectrum light. Studies with wheat grown under red LED's also indicate thatchlorophyll synthesis, photosynthesis, growth, and yield of wheat () are insensitive to spectral quality.TABLE 3. The effect of radiation source on growth and yield of wheatgrown under three radiation sources. (adapted from Guerra et al., 1985).Fig. 4. A comparison of the spectral output from low pressure sodium (LPS), red LED's, metal halide (MH), and high pressure sodium (HPS) lamps to the average quantum efficiency curve. Monochromatic, LPS lamps are near the peak quantum yield (a ratio of 0.99). Some output of red LED's exceeds 680 nm where the plant response drops sharply. The ratio for MH lamps (0.90) is reduced because they emit blue photons but this reduction is offset some because they emit photons in the UV region, which are not measured by PPF sensors. HPS lamps have a relatively high ratio (0.95) because most of their output is near the peak quantum yield.
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Side lighting means that tall plants intercept more photons and will have ahigher growth rate than short plants, It is important to distinguish betweenradiation absorption and photosynthesis because the increases in growth or widthcaused by increased side lighting do not occur in plant communities where plants form a closed canopy and mutual shading eliminates side lighting.
I define plant growth as an increase in dry mass and define plant developmentas a change in plant shape. These are important distinctions when describing theeffect of radiation on internode elongation. An increase in stem elongation isnot necessarily an increase in growth. Some radiation environments increaseplant height with no change in dry mass, e.g. far-red light can cause rapid stemelongation with no change in photosynthesis or dry mass.
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Ultraviolet-B Radiation Effects on Water Relations, Leaf Development, and Photosynthesis in Droughted Pea Plants
Photobiological Sciences Online (PSO)
This tutorial introduces electromagnetic radiation in physics
Photosynthesis - Wikipedia
Glossary of Terms: P - Physical Geography
Gallo, K.P. And C.S.T. Daughtry. 1986. Techniques for measuring intercepted and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation in corn canopies. Agron. Jour. 78:752-756.
PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation - The National …
Mccree, K.J. 1972b. Test of current definitions of photosynthetically active radiation against leaf photosynthesis data. Agric. Meteorol. 10:443-453.
Three Types of Radiation: The Properties and Uses of …
An additional source of error is that all sensors that integratephotosynthetic radiation are imperfect. Barnes et al. (1993) analyzed the errorsassociated with commercial sensors designed to integrate photosyntheticradiation over a range of wavelengths.
Electromagnetic Radiation and Radio Waves
Mccree, K.J. 1981. Photosynthetically active radiation. Pages 41-55. In: Lange, O.l., P.s. Nobel, C.B. Osmund, and H. Ziegler (eds.), Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New Series, Vol. 12a, Physiological Plant Ecology I. Springer Verlag, Berlin.
GCSE Physics – unit 1, unit 2 and unit 3. AQA
Increases in plant dry mass are not always associated with increases inphotosynthetic rate, particularly when increased internode elongation increasesplant height or diameter. Photosynthetic efficiency is rigorously defined asthe amount of CO2 fixed per absorbed photon, a ratio known as quantumyield. Longer internodes typically increase the interception and absorption ofphotons, causing increased plant growth (CO2 fixed or dry mass gain)without an increase in quantum yield (photosynthesis). An increase in thephysical process of radiation interception is often incorrectly interpreted asan increase in the biochemical process of photosynthesis.
Glossary of Terms: N - Physical Geography
Nuclear fusion processes in the center of the sun release the energy that ultimately reaches Earth as radiation. The main way in which that solar energy is captured and stored on Earth is through the complex chemical process known as photosynthesis. Solar cells are human-made devices that likewise capture the sun’s energy and produce electrical energy.
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