The Happiness Hypothesis - Jonathan Haidt
Krashen's theory of second language acquisition consists of five mainhypotheses:
Hypothesis - definition of hypothesis by The Free …
The Input hypothesis is Krashen's attempt to explain how thelearner acquires a second language – how second language acquisition takes place. The Input hypothesis is only concerned with 'acquisition', not 'learning'.According to this hypothesis, the learner improves and progresses when he/she receives second language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence. For example, if a learner is at a stage 'i', then acquisition takes place when he/she is exposed to 'Comprehensible Input' that belongs to level 'i + 1'. We can then define 'Comprehensible Input' as the target language that the learner would not be able to produce but can still understand. It goes beyond the choice of words and involves presentation of context, explanation, rewording of unclear parts, the use of visual cues and meaning negotiation. The meaning successfully conveyed constitutes the learning experience.
It is well established that composite faces manufactured using these computer graphic methods tend to be perceived as more attractive than the average attractiveness rating of their constituent images (as Galton's composites also were). That composite faces tend to be judged as more attractive than their constituent images led many researchers to conclude that ‘attractive faces are only average’. In other words, many researchers that had noted the high attractiveness of composite faces proposed that averageness is the critical determinant of attractiveness. This is often referred to as the ‘Averageness Hypothesis’. One explanation put forward for the effect of averageness on facial attractiveness is that average faces most closely resemble mental representations of a typical face and can therefore be processed most easily by the visual system (this explanation is similar to the perceptual bias account of symmetry preferences in that it emphasises a possible link between the ease with which faces can be processed and their attractiveness).
Hypothesis in Qualitative Research
Stephen Krashen (University of Southern California) is an expert inthe field of linguistics, specializing in theories of language acquisitionand development. Much of his recent research has involved the study ofnon-English and bilingual language acquisition. During the past 20 years,he has published well over 100 books and articles and has been invitedto deliver over 300 lectures at universities throughout the United Statesand Canada.
Krashen's widely known and well acceptedtheory of second language acquisition has had a large impact inall areas of second language research and teaching since the 1980s.
If yes, what are the advantages and limitations
The Natural Order hypothesis is based on research findings (Dulay & Burt, 1974; Fathman, 1975; Makino, 1980 cited in Krashen, 1987) which suggested that the acquisition of grammatical structures follows a 'natural order' which is predictable. For a given language, some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. This order seemed to be independent of the learners' age, L1 background, conditions of exposure, and although the agreement between individual acquirers was not always 100% in the studies, there were statistically significant similarities that reinforced the existence of a Natural Order of language acquisition. Krashen however points out that the implication of the natural order hypothesis is not that a language program syllabus should be based on the order found in the studies. In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition.
The Monitor hypothesis explains the relationship betweenacquisition and learning and defines the influence of the latter on the former. The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar. According to Krashen, the acquisition system is the utterance initiator, while the learning system performs the role of the 'monitor' or the 'editor'. The 'monitor' acts in a planning, editing and correcting function when three specific conditions are met: that is, the second language learner has sufficient time at his/her disposal, he/she focuses on form or thinks about correctness, and he/she knows the rule.
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HYPOTHESIS is the answer you think you'll find
Short description of Krashen's 5 main hypotheses on second language acquisition with comments in Portuguese.
Hypothesis – The Internet, peer reviewed.
The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom By Jonathan Haidt NYU-Stern School of Business
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hypothesis synonyms, hypothesis pronunciation, hypothesis translation, English dictionary definition of hypothesis
Face Research ⇒ Students ⇒ Topic 3: Are attractive …
In a classic study of facial attractiveness, Perrett et al. (1994) tested the Averageness Hypothesis in an effort to establish if averageness really is the critical determinant of the attractiveness of faces. Perrett et al. first collected a full face photographs of 60 young women (these photographs were taken under the same lighting conditions). One group of participants then were shown these images and asked to rate the attractiveness of each face using a 1 (very unattractive) to 7 (very attractive) scale. Next, Perrett et al used computer graphic methods to manufacture a composite face with the average shape of the whole sample (i.e. to construct the average of all 60 female faces) and a second composite face which was the average of the 15 faces that had been judged to be the most attractive by the first group of participants. Perrett et al. then manufactured what they called a ‘hyper-attractive’ composite face (i.e. a version of the composite of the attractive faces in which its attractive qualities were exaggerated or caricatured) by exaggerating (i.e. caricaturing) the physical differences in shape between the composite of all 60 faces and the composite of the most attractive 15 faces using computer graphic methods.
Testing the Averageness Hypothesis
Intriguingly, Perrett et al. found that when a new group of participants were asked to rate the attractiveness of each of the 3 composite faces (the average of all 60 faces, the average of the 15 most attractive faces and the ‘hyper-attractive’ that had exaggerated attractive qualities) the hyper-attractive face was considered the most attractive of the 3. This is noteworthy because the hyper attractive face was mathematically the least average of all 3 composites. Because the hyper-attractive face was the least average of the 3 composites judged, but also the most attractive, this finding is very strong evidence that averageness is not necessarily the critical determinant of facial attractiveness. In other words, Perrett et al's findings are evidence against the Averageness Hypothesis of facial attractiveness (which proposes that ‘attractive faces are only average’) because the findings show that highly attractive faces deviate systematically from an average shape.
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