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The two by-products of the synthesis process are water and ammonia.

The products of this reaction are water, ammonia gas, and potassium nitrate.

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b) the synthesis of ammonia (the Haber Process)

To eliminate this, an excess amount of KOH is used (to ensure full consumption of the ammonium nitrate), then any remaining KOH that remains is neutralized with a weak acid.

This was the first
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In 2007, Gerhard Ertl was awarded the Prize for his work on . Among the wide range of reactions he studied, he gained evidence for the adsorption of nitrogen molecules and hydrogen molecules on the surface iron and that these adsorbed molecules dissociate into atoms. These atoms then join up in stages to form the ammonia molecule. It must be remembered that the conditions used in these studies (at less than 10-10 atm) are very different from the conditions used in industry, ca 150 atm.

More information about Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3)

The manufacture of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen takes place in two main stages:
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The heats of solution (change in enthalpy in kcal/mol in water) are shown below [5]:ammonium nitrate +6.14 kcal/mol = 77 cal/gram heat absorbed
potassium hydroxide -13.77 kcal/mol = 245 cal/gram heat releasedIf the synthetic potassium nitrate is to be used for sugar propellant, it is important thatIf trace amounts of either reactant remain, a reaction will occur when heat-casting sugar propellant, leading to some degree of decomposition of the sugar similar to caramelization.

The crystals of potassium nitrate are then recovered by further cooling followed by mechanical separation of the crystals from the saturated solution.

The process of dissolving ammonium nitrate in water is endothermic, that is, heat is absorbed resulting in a significant drop in solution temperature.

Author: Subject: A Unique Synthesis of Ammonium Nitrate

The manufacture of ammonia is crucial for the world's agricultural industry for from it all fertilizers that contain nitrogen are produced.
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Although ammonium nitrate is potentially a very effective oxidizer, it is difficult to harness its capacity for a rocket propellant oxidizer due to its low combustion temperature and tendency to self-extinguish, drowning it its own water produced as the main product of combustion.

Ammonium nitrate cannot be used as a direct replacement for potassium nitrate in sugar propellant due to rapid decomposition that occurs at elevated temperature when in contact with organic materials such as sugars.As such, it is indeed fortuitous that potassium nitrate can be readily synthesized using ammonium nitrate as a base material.

Thermo-Electric Properties of Cu and Ni Nanoparticles Packed Beds  J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 18, 3413–3418 (2018) [] [] []
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Ammonium Nitrate Synthesis - News - SAN …

The manufacture of fertilizers is by far the most important use of ammonia. These include , (ammonium phosphates, ammonium nitrate, calcium ammonium nitrate) and solutions of ammonia.

Synthesis of Potassium Nitrate from Ammonium Nitrate

This webpage describes a process that is a relatively simple and safe way to make synthetic potassium nitrate that is quite pure and is perfectly suitable for use as a rocket propellant oxidizer.The synthesis process described here involves a reaction between ammonium nitrate and potassium hydroxide (KOH) that occurs in an aqueous solution.

Mohanan, Synthesis, 2006, 2531-2534

An increasing amount of ammonia, although still small compared with other uses, is used as a concentrated solution in combating the discharge of nitrogen oxides from power stations.

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