02/03/2001 · Th2 cytokines and asthma: an ..
in dirt may alter the balance between Th1 and Th2 cells
Th1 and Th2 responses: what are they? | The BMJ
In the skin, Th2 cells induce an inflammatory reaction involving mast cells and eosinophil granulocytes. Importantly, Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, inhibit the induction of an adequate innate immune response of epithelial cells. This is why E patients display lower amounts of antimicrobial peptides in the skin than for example psoriasis patients. The reduced innate immunity explains why the skin of almost all E patients is frequently colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. There is a correlation of the number of staphylocci and the severity of E, most likely due to release of exotoxins such as staphylococcus enterotoxin A/B. Also other microorganisms such as the yeast Malassezia furfur (formerly called Pityrosporum ovale or orbiculare) or the Molluscum contagiosum virus are regularly detected on E skin. Primary infections with herpes simplex virus (E herpeticum) are often severe in atopic E patients and require hospitalization.
While acute E lesions are infiltrated by a vast majority of Th2 cells, more chronic lesions are characterized by a broader immune response of mostly Th1, Th2, and Th22 cells. In line with that observation, the clinical hallmarks of acute versus chronic E are strikingly different, but the reduced epidermal barrier function with dryness of the skin and the skin colonization with extracellular microorganisms are constantly observed throughout all stages of E.
as Th1-type cytokines and Th2-type cytokines
Besides genetic determination, the epidermal barrier function also depends on the immune system. It has been demonstrated that Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 inhibit the expression of filaggrin and S100 proteins and thus impair the epidermal barrier. Mechanical (scratching) or physical (hot water, UV exposure, sweating) irritation further weakens the epidermal barrier.
Deviated immune response, allergy, and impaired innate immunity E is typically characterized by a Th2 dominated immune response both in skin and in circulation. This is especially true for atopic E (formerly called extrinsic atopic E), but also for other kinds of E such as non-atopic E (formerly called intrinsic atopic E), allergic contact dermatitis, and nummular or dishydrotic E. The Th2 prevalence is partially based on genetic predisposition (e.g. mutations in the IgE receptor or the Th2 inducer TSLP) and/or on the nature of the antigen causing an immune reaction. Increasing evidence suggests that for example pollen-derived low-molecular weight substances favor a Th2 immune response.
antigen challenge.15 The “Th2 asthma hypothesis” is based on the ..
More than in other allergic diseases, E is characterized by increased serum IgE levels. T cells play a major role in regulation of IgE production. The Th2 subtype secreting the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 is most important, working via the MHC-II and T-cell receptor, and with co-stimulatory molecules to induce an isotype switch in B cells to produce IgE. While Th2 reactions are crucial for triggering reactions, in chronic skin lesions Th1 reaction patterns can be observed.
IgE antibodies and positive Atopy Patch Test have been found in the majority of adult patients with AE. The inflammatory infiltrate in AE lesions mainly consists of CD4+ T lymphocytes, and a correlation with disease activity can be shown by the proportion of activated and unactivated CD4+ cells. In the early lesions Th2 cells predominate, later in the more chronic phase Th1 cells prevail.
01/10/2003 · Th1 ﬁ Th2 switch hypothesis) ..
Th1-type cytokines tend to produce the ..
Chronic Aspiration Shifts the Immunue Response from Th-1 to Th-2 in a Murine Model of Asthma - SAGES Abstract Archives
Immunopathogenesis of Allergic Asthma More ..
Evaluation of airway inflammation by quantitative Th1/Th2 cytokine mRNA measurement in sputum of asthma patients Thorax
May/June 2002 - Volume 34 - Issue
Cytokines in asthma Thorax
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