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The largest lesion in the first study was 10 cm.13
The theory was first put forward in 1987.1
Scholtz2 has argued that...


The largest lesion in the first study was 10 cm (13).
The theory was first put forward in 1987 (1).
Scholtz (2) has argued that...

It is not necessary to mention either the author(s) or date of the reference unless it is relevant to your text. Remember the numbers do not change once they are assigned. If you cite a book written by Margaret Jones, and give it the number 2, then cite it three pages later—it is still 2. This is probably the most important aspect of Vancouver style.


A numbered list of references must be provided at the end of the paper. The list should be arranged in the order of citation in the text of the publication, assignment or essay, not in alphabetical order. List only one reference per reference number. It is very important that you use the correct punctuation and that the order of details in the references is also correct.

The following examples demonstrate the format for a variety of types of references. Included are some examples of citing electronic documents. Such items come in many forms, so only some examples have been listed here.


Only the first word of in the title of a book or conference should be capitalized, except for proper nouns or acronyms. Capitalize the "v" in Volume for a book title.

Author/editor AA. Title: subtitle. Edition (if not the first). Vol.(if a multivolume work). Place of publication: Publisher; Year. p. page number(s) (if appropriate).
Hoppert M. Microscopic techniques in biotechnology. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH; 2003.

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The Vancouver Style is formally known as Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (ICMJE Recommendations). It was developed in Vancouver in 1978 by editors of medical journals and well over 1,000 medical journals (including ICMJE members BMJ, CMAJ, JAMA & NEJM) use this style. This user guide explains how to cite references in Vancouver Style, both within the text of a paper and in a reference list, and gives examples of commonly used types of references.

Science writing and editing: How to write scientific names

Thesis editor vancouver

The Vancouver style was first defined by a meeting of medical journal editors in Vancouver, Canada, in 1978. These guidelines follow the principles given in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and editing for biomedical publication published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) in 2004 and the American Medical Association Manual of Style, 9th edition, 1998. These publications constitute authoritative international guides to Vancouver publication standards and style.

Vancouver Style uses a notational method of referencing when referring to a source of information within the text of a document. In its simplest form, a citation is given consisting of a number in superscript format or enclosed by parentheses.


Only a partial title and the page number are necessary, located in the upper or lower right, providing it is consistent.

Cover Page

Since the Vancouver style is generally only used for submitting medical articles to medical journals (so, unless you are a doctor, or about to be, you may never use this), the title page follows a strict guideline. First is the title of the paper, centered. The title should be short, however a longer descriptive title may follow it. (This is especially important in medical journals, because the more keywords used, the more likely the paper will be found.) Then follows the name of the author, and his or her credentials. Next is the department, and then the university or institution. After this, put the author's contact information. Lastly, a word count is necessary, and, if applicable, the name of a professor or institution who requesting the paper or sponsoring the study.

Following is an example of a heading in the Vancouver format:

Dangerous Genetics:

Propensity of Huntington's Disease in Families, and an Examination of its Occurrence in Western Europeans

Skills Hub home : Skills Hub: University of Sussex

Online auctions essay by Marilyn C. Danielson - issuu

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